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2019年11月14日 19:02:10    日报  参与评论()人

吉安激光去红血丝多少钱吉安县人民医院做双眼皮多少钱吉安吸脂哪家医院好 MANY people have been making the case that Americans have grown fat because they eat too much starch and sugar, and not enough meat, fat and eggs. Recently, the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee lifted recommendations that consumption of dietary cholesterol should be restricted, citing research that dietary cholesterol does not have a major effect on blood cholesterol levels. The predictable headlines followed: “Back to Eggs and Bacon?”很多人都说,美国人变得肥胖是因为他们吃了太多淀粉和糖,而没有摄入足够的肉类、脂肪和鸡蛋。近日,美国膳食指南咨询委员会(Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee)取消了“膳食中的胆固醇消耗应该受到限制”的建议。它援引的一项研究认为,饮食中的胆固醇不会对血液中的胆固醇水平产生重大影响。不出所料,一些媒体打出了这样的大标题:“回归鸡蛋和熏肉?”But, alas, bacon and egg yolks are not health foods.但是,唉,熏肉和蛋黄都不是健康食品。Although people have been told for decades to eat less meat and fat, Americans actually consumed 67 percent more added fat, 39 percent more sugar, and 41 percent more meat in 2000 than they had in 1950 and 24.5 percent more calories than they had in 1970, according to the Agriculture Department. Not surprisingly, we are fatter and unhealthier.虽然这几十年来,人们都被告知要少吃肉类和脂肪,但与1950年相比,美国人在2000年实际消耗的添加脂肪增加了67%,糖分增加了39%,肉类增加了41%,而且比1970年多摄入了24.5%的卡路里。因此毫不奇怪,我们变得更胖了,健康水平也下滑了。The debate is not as simple as low-fat versus low-carb. Research shows that animal protein may significantly increase the risk of premature mortality from all causes, among them cardiovascular disease, cancer and Type 2 diabetes. Heavy consumption of saturated fat and trans fats may double the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease.这场辩论不是简单地比较低脂肪饮食与低碳水化合物饮食。研究表明,动物蛋白可能会大幅增加各种原因导致的过早死亡风险,这些原因包括心血管疾病、癌症和2型糖尿病。大量摄入饱和脂肪和反式脂肪,可能会让阿尔茨海默氏症的患病风险增加一倍。A study published last March found a 75 percent increase in premature deaths from all causes, and a 400 percent increase in deaths from cancer and Type 2 diabetes, among heavy consumers of animal protein under the age of 65 — those who got 20 percent or more of their calories from animal protein.去年3月公布的一项研究发现,在大量摄入动物蛋白的65岁以下人群中,各种原因导致的过早死亡数量增加了75%,因癌症和2型糖尿病而死亡的人数增加了400%。这些人摄入的的卡路里中,超过20%都来自动物蛋白。Low-carb, high-animal-protein diets promote heart disease via mechanisms other than just their effects on cholesterol levels. Arterial blockages may be caused by animal-protein-induced elevations in free fatty acids and insulin levels and decreased production of endothelial progenitor cells (which help keep arteries clean). Egg yolks and red meat appear to significantly increase the risk of coronary heart disease and cancer due to increased production of trimethylamine N-oxide, or TMAO, a metabolite of meat and egg yolks linked to the clogging of arteries. (Egg whites have neither cholesterol nor TMAO.)低碳水化合物加高动物蛋白的饮食促发心脏疾病,其方式不仅仅是影响胆固醇水平那样简单。在动物蛋白诱导下,游离脂肪酸和胰岛素水平升高,内皮祖细胞(有助于保持动脉清洁)的生成减少,从而可能引起动脉堵塞。蛋黄和红肉似乎明显增加了冠状动脉心脏疾病和癌症的患病风险,因为它增进了三甲胺氧化物(TMAO)的生成。TMAO是肉和蛋黄的代谢物,与动脉堵塞有关。(蛋清既没有胆固醇,也不含TMAO)。Animal protein increases IGF-1, an insulin-like growth hormone, and chronic inflammation, an underlying factor in many chronic diseases. Also, red meat is high in Neu5Gc, a tumor-forming sugar that is linked to chronic inflammation and an increased risk of cancer. A plant-based diet may prolong life by blocking the mTOR protein, which is linked to aging. When fat calories were carefully controlled, patients lost 67 percent more body fat than when carbohydrates were controlled. An optimal diet for preventing disease is a whole-foods, plant-based diet that is naturally low in animal protein, harmful fats and refined carbohydrates. What that means in practice is little or no red meat; mostly vegetables, fruits, whole grains, legumes and soy products in their natural forms; very few simple and refined carbohydrates such as sugar and white flour; and sufficient “good fats” such as fish oil or flax oil, seeds and nuts. A healthful diet should be low in “bad fats,” meaning trans fats, saturated fats and hydrogenated fats. Finally, we need more quality and less quantity.动物蛋白增加了胰岛素样生长激素IGF-1和慢性炎症,后者是很多慢性疾病的潜在成因。另外,红肉含有很高的Neu5Gc,这是一种导致肿瘤的糖分,可能会引起慢性炎症,增加患癌风险。以植物为主的饮食则可以延年益寿,因为它可以阻断引起衰老的mTOR蛋白质。与控制碳水化合物时相比,当脂肪热量受到严格控制时,患者减去了67%的额外身体脂肪。预防疾病的最佳饮食,是基于植物的全面膳食,其中动物蛋白、对人体有害脂肪,以及精制的碳水化合物含量天然就比较低。这意味着在日常生活中少吃或不吃红肉;主要吃未经深加工的蔬菜、水果、全谷类,豆类和豆制品;像糖和白面粉这种单纯和精制碳水化合物,只消耗极少量;要摄入足够的“好脂肪”,比如鱼油或亚麻籽油,种子和坚果。少吃“坏脂肪”,即反式脂肪、饱和脂肪和氢化脂肪。最后,我们还需要提高质量,减少数量。My colleagues and I at the nonprofit Preventive Medicine Research Institute and the University of California, San Francisco, have conducted clinical research proving the many benefits of a whole-foods, plant-based diet on reversing chronic diseases, not just on reducing risk factors such as cholesterol. Our interventions also included stress management techniques, moderate exercise like walking and social support.我和非营利机构预防医学研究院(Preventive Medicine Research Institute)及加州大学旧金山分校(University of California, San Francisco)的同事们进行过临床研究,明基于植物的全面膳食在逆转慢性疾病方面有着众多好处,而不只是降低胆固醇等风险因素。我们的干预措施还包括压力管理技巧、散步这样的适度运动,以及社交持。We showed in randomized, controlled trials that these diet and lifestyle changes can reverse the progression of even severe coronary heart disease. Episodes of chest pain decreased by 91 percent after only a few weeks. After five years there were 2.5 times fewer cardiac events. Blood flow to the heart improved by over 300 percent.我们的随机对照试验研究显示,在改变饮食习惯和生活方式之后,就连严重的冠状动脉心脏疾病发展都可以逆转。仅仅几周后,患者胸痛发作次数就减少了91%。五年之后,心脏事件减少了2.5倍。流向心脏的血液改善了300%。Other physicians, including Dr. Kim A. Williams, the president of the American College of Cardiology, are also finding that these diet and lifestyle changes can reduce the need for a lifetime of medications and transform people’s lives. These changes may also slow, stop or even reverse the progression of early-stage prostate cancer, judging from results in a randomized controlled trial.美国心脏病学会(American College of Cardiology)会长金·A·威廉斯(Kim A. Williams)士等其他医生还发现,改变饮食习惯和生活方式可以减少终生用药的需要,可以让人们的生活焕然一新。从随机对照试验的结果来看,这些改变还有可能减缓、中止甚至逆转早期前列腺癌症的发展。These changes may also alter your genes, turning on genes that keep you healthy, and turning off genes that promote disease. They may even lengthen telomeres, the ends of our chromosomes that control aging.这些改变也可能会转变你的基因,启动让你健康的基因,关闭促发疾病的基因。它们甚至可能延长端粒;它是染色体的末端,作用是控制衰老。The more people adhered to these recommendations (including reducing the amount of fat and cholesterol they consumed), the more improvement we measured — at any age. But for reversing disease, a whole-foods, plant-based diet seems to be necessary.无论属于哪个年龄阶段,人们越是遵循这些建议(包括减少脂肪和胆固醇摄入),我们测量到的改善也就越大。但对于逆转疾病而言,基于植物的全面膳食似乎是必不可少。In addition, what’s good for you is good for our planet. Livestock production causes more disruption of the climate than all forms of transportation combined. And because it takes as much as 10 times more grain to produce the same amount of calories through livestock as through direct grain consumption, eating a plant-based diet could free up resources for the hungry.此外,有利于你的东西对我们的星球也有好处。畜牧业对气候变化的影响,超过了所有运输工具的总和。而且,与直接消耗粮食相比,需要多达10倍以上的粮食,才能通过牲畜产生同样多的卡路里,所以,以植物为主的饮食习惯有助于腾出资源来救助饥民。What you gain is so much more than what you give up.与你放弃的东西相比,你的所得远远更大。 /201503/367303How does the world’s top investor, at 84 years old, wake up every day and face the world with boundless energy?作为全球顶尖的投资家,今年84岁的巴菲特每天是如何精神抖擞地起床,带着无限的精力面对这个世界的?“I’m one quarter Coca-Cola,” Warren Buffett says.巴菲特曾说:“可口可乐占了我的四分之一。”When he told me this in a phone call yesterday (we were talking about the death of his friend, former), I assumed he was talking about his stock portfolio.当他昨天在电话里说起这番话时(我们正在谈论他刚刚过世的一位朋友),我还以为他说的是自己的投资组合。No, Buffett explained, “If I eat 2700 calories a day, a quarter of that is Coca-Cola. I drink at least five 12-ounce servings. I do it everyday.”巴菲特解释道:“如果我每天吃2700卡路里,其中有四分之一是可口可乐。我每天喝至少五罐12盎司的可乐,每天都是这样。”Perhaps only a man who owns billion in Coca-Cola stock—9% of Coke, through his company, Berkshire Hathaway—would maintain such an odd daily diet. One 12-ounce can of Coke contains 140 calories. Typically, Buffett says, “I have three Cokes during the day and two at night.”大概只有他这样一个持有160亿可口可乐股票(该公司9%的股权)的投资人,才会保持如此奇特的日常饮食习惯。一罐12盎司的可口可乐含有140卡路里的热量。巴菲特说,一般情况下,“我每天白天喝三罐,晚上喝两罐。”When he’s at his desk at Berkshire Hathaway headquarters in Omaha, he drinks regular Coke; at home, he treats himself to Cherry Coke.在伯克希尔哈撒韦公司总部大楼的办公室时,他喝的是普通的可口可乐;在家则喝樱桃味的可口可乐。“I’ll have one at breakfast,” he explains, noting that he loves to drink Coke with potato sticks. What brand of potato sticks? “I have a can right here,” he says. “U-T-Z” Utz is a Hanover, Pennsylvania-based snack maker. Buffett says that he’s talked to Utz management about potentially buying the company.他解释道:“我早餐时会喝一罐,”并表示他喜欢配上薯条吃。哪个品牌的薯条?他说:“我手头上就有一罐UTZ薯条。”UTZ是一家位于宾州汉诺威市的零食公司。巴菲特说,他曾和UTZ的管理层商谈过收购这家公司的可能性。Investors in Berkshire Hathaway may feel relieved that the CEO isn’t addicted to Utz Potato Stix at every breakfast. “This morning, I had a bowl of chocolate chip ice cream,” Buffett says.令公司投资人感到欣慰的是,巴菲特并非每顿早餐都对UTZ的薯条上瘾。他说:“今天早上,我吃了一碗巧克力冰淇淋。”Asked to explain the high-sugar, high-salt diet that has somehow enabled him to remain seemingly healthy, Buffett replies: “I checked the actuarial tables, and the lowest death rate is among six-year-olds. So I decided to eat like a six-year-old.” The octogenarian adds, “It’s the safest course I can take.”当被问到高糖高盐的饮食为什么能让他看起来很健康的时候,巴菲特答道:“我查过死亡率统计表,死亡率最低的是六岁儿童。所以我决定仿照六岁孩童的饮食习惯。”这位八旬老人补充道:“这样做再安全不过了。” /201503/362751永新县人民中医院瘦腿针多少钱

吉安玻尿酸隆鼻;You are,without a doubt,the most disorganized person I#39;ve ever met!;毫无疑问,你是我见过的最没有组织能力的人! /201507/383342吉安激光祛疤医院 BEIJING — China is spending hundreds of billions of dollars annually in an effort to become a leader in biomedical research, building scores of laboratories and training thousands of scientists.北京——为了成为生物医学研究领域的领军者,中国正在每年投入数以亿计的资金,用来建设上百座的实验室,培养成千上万的科学家。But the rush to the front ranks of science may come at a price: Some experts worry that medical researchers in China are stepping over ethical boundaries long accepted in the West.但是,这种急于跻身科学界前列的做法,可能会带来一些问题:一些专家担心,中国的医学研究人员正在跨越西方长期遵循的伦理界限。Scientists around the world were shocked in April when a team led by Huang Junjiu, 34, at Sun Yat-sen University in Guangzhou, published the results of an experiment in editing the genes of human embryos.今年4月,34岁的黄军就在广州中山大学领导的一个科研团队发表了修改人类胚胎基因的实验结果,震惊了世界各地的科学家。The technology, called Crispr-Cas9, may one day be used to eradicate inheritable illnesses. But in theory, it also could be used to change such traits as eye color or intelligence, and to ensure that the changes are passed on to future generations.这项技术名为CRISPR-Cas9,有朝一日或许可以会被用于根除遗传疾病。但在理论上,它也可以用来改变眼睛颜色和智商这样的遗传特征,并让这种变异传递到后代身上。Dr. Huang and his colleagues tried to modify a gene that causes a blood disorder called beta-thalassemia. The experiment failed in 85 embryos. Even so, to many in global science, it was a line that should not have been crossed.黄军及其同事试图修改导致血液疾病β-地中海贫血的一个基因。在85个胚胎上,实验都失败了。即便如此,在全球科学界的很多人看来,这条界限不应该被跨越。Scientists in the West generally abjure this sort of research on the grounds that it amounts to genetic engineering of humans. In any event, the technology is still in the earliest stages of development.西方科学家普遍止步于这一类研究的门外,理由是它相当于开展人类基因工程。无论如何,这项技术仍处于发展的最早期阶段。“The consensus among the scientific community is, ‘not for now,’ ” said Huso Yi, the director of research at the Chinese University of Hong Kong Centre for Bioethics.“科学界的共识是,‘现在不要做,’”香港中文大学生命伦理中心研究总监李湖树表示。Yet Chinese scientists seem in no mood to wait.然而,中国的科学家似乎无心等待。“I don’t think China wants to take a moratorium,” Mr. Yi said. “People are saying they can’t stop the train of mainland Chinese genetics because it’s going too fast.”“我认为中国不会想要中止行动,”李湖树说。“大家在说中国大陆遗传学的滚滚车轮无法阻止,因为跑得太快了。”China is quickly building infrastructure for scientific research.中国正在快速推进科研基础设施的建设。In 2013, the last year for which statistics are available, the state invested more than 1.18 trillion renminbi, or 0 billion, which is more than 2 percent of its gross domestic product, in “the development of scientific research and experimentation,” according to China’s National Bureau of Statistics.现已公布的最新统计数据来自2013年。中国国家统计局的资料显示,中国在“科学研发和实验”上投入了逾1.18万亿元人民币,超过国内生产总值的2%。In 2011, the state invested about 0 billion, or 1.84 percent of its G.D.P., the bureau said.国家统计局的资料还显示,2011年,中国在这方面的投入为8680亿元,相当于国内生产总值的1.84%。“The gap between China’s new bioscience technologies and that of the West is closing,” said Zhao Xiaomei, a member of the country’s National Medical Ethical Committee and a professor at Peking Union Medical College.“在新的生物科学技术上,中国跟发达国家的差距,是日益在缩小,”中国医学伦理委员会成员、北京协和医科大学教授翟晓梅说。But the research juggernaut is gathering momentum in a country where training in ethics for scientists was introduced, under pressure from the West, only a dozen years ago.不过在中国,这股宏大的科研力量正在不断向前推进。仅仅从十几年前开始,中国才在西方的压力下对科学家进行伦理教育。“The ‘red line’ in the West and in China are not too similar,” Deng Rui, a medical ethicist at Shanxi Medical University, said in a telephone interview. “Ethics are a question of culture, and that is about tradition, especially where it touches on human life.”“西方国家和中国的“红线”不太一样,”山西医科大学医学伦理学专家邓蕊接受电话采访时表示。“伦理是文化问题,与传统有关,特别是在人类生命方面。”“Confucian thinking says that someone becomes a person after they are born. That is different from the ed States or other countries with a Christian influence, where because of religion they may feel research on embryos is not O.K.”“儒家思想认为生而为人。这与美国或其他受基督教影响的国家不同。由于宗教的关系,这些国家可能感觉做胚胎研究是不可行的。”The state does set limits, Ms. Deng said: “Our ‘red line’ here is that you can only experiment on embryos that are younger than 14 days old.”邓蕊表示,国家确实设定了限制,“我们的‘红线’是只有14天以内的人类胚胎可以用于实验研究。”The proscription is contained in a document issued by the health and science ministries in 2003. It now urgently needs updating, she said.卫生部和科技部2003年联合颁布的一份文件下达了上述禁令。邓蕊表示,这一规定现在亟需更新。Chinese scientists adhere to globally accepted ethical and scientific norms, said Ms. Zhai Xiaomei, a member of the country’s National Medical Ethical Committee and a professor at Peking Union Medical College.翟晓梅教授称,中国科学家遵从国际认可的伦理和科学规范。But many scientists experience pressure not to do so, she acknowledged.但她承认,很多科学家承受着要他们不这么做的压力。“Inside China, there are people who are opposed to international standards, citing cultural differences,” Ms. Zhai said. “This force is actually quite powerful sometimes.”“我们国内有一些人以文化差异背景不同为由来反对国际准则,”翟晓梅说。“国内这个势力有的时候挺强大的。”“For example, they say we should use our homegrown Confucian thoughts to solve problems, as those international standards are from the West while we have our Eastern culture. But we absolutely disagree with this point of view.”“比如说我们要用儒家的思想,可以解决很多东西,要用我们本土的,国际准则是西方的东西,我们是东方的文化。但我们是坚决不同意这个观点的。”In the case of Dr. Huang’s experiment, the national committee decided that it was ethically acceptable because it “was not for reproductive purposes,” Ms. Zhai said, a stance that surprised some overseas scientists.翟晓梅表示,对于黄军就的实验,中国医学伦理委员会判定这在伦理上是可以接受的,因为它“并不是以生殖为目的”。这种立场出乎了一些外国科学家的意料。“They chose to use embryos that would soon be destroyed. So far, we have been regarding it as a very fundamental research, instead of interventions in or editing of germ cells,” Ms. Zhai said.“他们选择的是马上就要毁掉的胚胎。所以到目前为止我们把它看作是非常非常基础的一个研究,而没有把它看作是对生殖细胞的干预,或者叫‘编辑’,” 翟晓梅说。But she struck a warning note: “If you want to edit genes in germ cells with the intention of using this right away, it’s absolutely not O.K., because the technology has yet to become mature.”但她也发出了警告,“如果你要做生殖细胞的编辑,而且要马上把它用上,那绝对是不行的,因为你现在技术是不成熟的。”Disturbed by the recent study, Rao Yi, a professor of biology and director of the four-year-old Center of Life Sciences at Peking University, run jointly with Tsinghua University, warned that scientific research in China urgently needed more effective ethical oversight.最近的这项研究让北京大学-清华大学生命科学联合中心主任、生物学教授饶毅备受困扰。他警告称,中国的科学研究亟需更加有效的伦理监督。该联合中心成立了四年。“The more technology we have, the more dangerous we are to ourselves and entire humankind,” Mr. Rao said.“我们掌握的技术越多,我们对自己和整个人类来说就越危险,”饶毅说。Chinese scientists are generally poorly paid, he said, but may receive a bonus of up to ,000 per article from the state for publishing in international scientific journals, providing financial incentives for pushing the boundaries.他表示,中国科学家通常收入较低,但如果在国际科学期刊发表文章,可能会收到国家发放的奖金,最多可达每篇20万元。这为推动他们突破限制提供了资金激励。“Do first, talk later” is the attitude of many, Mr. Rao and two colleagues wrote recently on iScientist, an online community for Chinese researchers.饶毅和另外两名华人科学家为面向中国科研人员的微信公众号“赛先生”担任主编。他们近期在上面写道,很多人抱有“先做了再说”的态度。A global medical ethics body run by the World Health Organization or the ed Nations should be set up to regulate scientific experimentation, Mr. Rao said.饶毅认为,世界卫生组织(World Health Organization)或联合国应该成立一家全球性的医学伦理监督机构,对科学实验加以规范。More unpleasant scientific surprises are looming, several scientists said. “Right now, human gene editing is the main thing,” Mr. Yi said. Geneticists in China “don’t want to be guided by Western people.”一些科学家表示,即将出现更多令人不快的科学新发现。“目前,人类基因编辑是焦点所在,”李湖树说。中国的遗传学家“不想受西方人的领导”。The mind-set among Chinese researchers, according to Mr. Yi: “ ‘We’re going to do it, then see what’s wrong, then fix it. But the conceptual discussion may be missing.’ ”李湖树称,中国研究人员的想法是,“我们先去做,然后看看有什么问题,再解决问题。但这中间可能缺少对观念的讨论。” /201507/383693吉安保仕柏丽医院治疗祛痘多少钱

新干县人民中医院激光去红血丝多少钱If you get these signs from your man, then you should know he wants it tonight. Pay attention...如果你发现你的男人有这些迹象,那么你应该明白他今晚想要。你要注意了······Sometimes direct ways are not that much and subtle hints, even though involuntary, can be fun if you can decode them. Guys sometimes will never tell you that they want to get down and dirty with you directly. But there are certain hints that they will throw away and if you can catch them, then you know where it is all heading.有时他不会直接要求而是含蓄的暗示,甚至无意识的,如果你能发现其中的奥秘就会很有趣。但是那些可能被错过的暗示,如果你能抓住他,那么你就会找到前进的方向。Its all in the eyes: When a certain part of the brain gets excited, it shows in the eyes. So ladies, keep looking into his eyes and if they are dilated, you know there is something going on. Plus, he will play the staring game. Men tend to get visually excited and thus stare at their partner and so if you find him staring at you with dilated eyes, that your cue.眼睛:当大脑的某一部分被激发时,信息就会显示在眼睛里。因此女士们,看着他的眼睛,如果他的眼睛变大,你就会知道有些事情要发生。另外,他也会看着你。男人往往倾向于视觉上的兴奋,所以他会盯着自己的女朋友,所以,如果你发现他用大大的眼睛盯着你时,说明他需要你。Gets all cleaned up: Of course, he would want to smell attractive when he comes close to his woman. So if you see him cleaning up his act and taking special care of how he smells that particular evening, you should know there is something exciting coming up.洗澡:当男人接近女人的时候他希望闻到诱人的香水味。所以,如果你看到他在那个夜晚把自己洗的干干净净,你应该知道有一些令人兴奋的事情要来了。Gets touchy and personal: The build up starts early. So if he brushes past you, gently touches your face or simply gets touchy and physical, it means he is preparing the ground. And the touch can really be stimulating, both for men and women. So if he asks for a head massage or any other form of help that requires physical contact, that is a perfect hint.触摸:如果他与你擦身而过,轻轻触摸你的脸或者身体,这意味着他已经准备好了。无论对于男女来讲触摸都是令人兴奋的。所以,如果他要求你做一个头部或者其他的,这就是一个完美的暗示。Helps you out: Some days he will be extra nice and will switch on your favorite channel instead of insisting on watching a game or will help you in your daily chores. Being extra nice means there is something building up. Be y.帮助你:也许那些天他会格外照顾你,帮你做家务-打开你最喜欢的电视节目。格外照顾你意味着有些事情要发生了。你要做好准备。 /201503/363630 Over 60 years have passed since Sir Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay made history as the first successful summiteers of Mount Everest, yet the desire to climb the mountain hasn#39;t waned over the decades. We hear countless stories of the triumphant—or, more recently, tragic—attempts to reach the top. But many interesting facts about the mountain aren#39;t common knowledge.距离埃德蒙·希拉里爵士(Sir Edmund Hillary)和丹增·诺尔盖(Tenzing Norgay)首次登顶珠穆朗玛峰已有60余年,但人们的登峰却并未在这漫长的时间长河中消失殆尽。我们经常听到有人成功登顶,以及一些不幸失败的故事(尤其是最近)。但关于珠穆朗玛峰的趣实却远不止这些。10. Mountain Spiders10. 峰上蜘蛛Even high in the sky, with barely enough air to breathe, we still can#39;t hide from spiders. Euophrys omnisuperstes (;standing above everything;), better known as Himalayan jumping spiders, hide in nooks and crevices on the slopes of Everest, making them one of the Earth#39;s highest permanent residents. Climbers have spotted them as high as 6,700 meters (22,000 ft). The tiny spiders manage to feed on whatever stray insects the severe winds blow up the mountain. They#39;re virtually the only animals permanently based at such a high altitude, aside from a few species of bird. In addition, several previously unnamed grasshopper species were collected during the famously ill-fated 1924 British Everest expedition and are now on display in the British Natural History Museum.即使在几乎没有空气可供呼吸的珠穆朗玛峰,我们也有可能与蜘蛛不期而遇。在珠穆朗玛峰斜坡上的凹缝和裂隙之中,就可以见到被称为“喜马拉雅跳蛛”的Euophrysomnisuperstes(意为“万物之上”)蜘蛛,这些蜘蛛是世界上居住海拔最高的永久居民之一。登山者在海拔6700米(22000英尺)的地方发现了它们。这种小蜘蛛以被强风吹上山的迷途昆虫为食。除了一些品种独特的鸟之外,这些跳蛛可以说是生活在如此高海拔地区的唯一动物。并且,在1924年的那次以失败告终的英国珠峰探险之中,探险者就采集到了跳蛛样本,这些样本现在被陈列在英国自然历史物馆(British Natural History Museum)之中。9. Two Men Climbed It 21 Times9. 两个攀登珠峰21次的人Two Sherpas, Apa Sherpa and Phurba Tashi, hold the joint record for most Everest ascents. The pair have each managed to reach the summit an impressive 21 times. Phurba reached the top of the world three times in 2007 alone, and Apa has successfully summited the mountain almost every year between 1990 and 2011. Apa says that he has seen clear changes on Everest caused by global warming over the years. He has spoken of his concerns over melting snow and glaciers, which expose the rock and make it increasingly tough to climb. He also worries for the well-being of Sherpas, after losing his own home in a flood caused by the melted glaciers. Apa has dedicated several Everest ascents to raising awareness of climate change. 8The World#39;s Highest Brawl03两个夏尔巴人——阿帕·夏尔巴(Apa Sherpa)和普巴·塔西(Phurba Tashi)——共同保持着登顶珠峰次数最多的纪录。令人敬佩的是,他们两人各自成功登顶珠峰21次。普巴在2007年独自一人三次登顶珠穆朗玛峰这座“世界之巅”,而阿帕则是在1990年到2011年这段时间里,几乎每年都会成功登顶珠峰。阿帕说道,受全球变暖的影响,珠穆朗玛峰在这些年里发生了明显变化。他担心积雪和冰川的融化会使岩石裸露,这样的话,登顶珠峰将会变得愈加困难。他也对夏尔巴人幸福康乐的生活表示忧虑,因为他自己的家就毁于一次冰川融化造成的洪水泛滥之中。阿帕的好几次登峰探险都致力于提高人们对气候变化的意识。8. The World#39;s Highest Brawl8. 史上海拔最高的“珠峰纷争”Everest climbs aren#39;t always the harmonious triumphs you might imagine. In 2013, climbers Ueli Steck, Simone Moro, and Jonathan Griffith found themselves in a violent brawl with Sherpas after allegedly ignoring orders to halt their climb. The Sherpas accused the climbers of getting in their way and causing an avalanche that hit other Sherpas laying ropes downhill. The climbers denied the accusations, and the confrontation turned violent. The Sherpas kicked, punched, and beat the men with rocks, and Moro says one angry Sherpa even threatened to kill him. The fight might have ended considerably worse, but American climber Melissa Arnot warned the trio to flee to the basecamp before the rest formed a mob and stoned them to death. After the incident, a Nepal army official stood witness as both sides signed a peace agreement to settle the dispute. 7A 450-Million-Year History04登顶珠穆朗玛峰的探险,并不如你所想的那样,总是洋溢着和谐的欢欣气氛。2013年,三个登山爱好者乌里·斯特克(Ueli Steck)、西蒙尼·尔(Simone Moro)和乔纳森·格里菲斯(Jonathan Griffith)罔顾夏尔巴人暂作歇息的命令而继续攀爬的行为,触怒了当地夏尔巴人,从而引发了一场激烈纷争。夏尔巴人指责这三个登山者妨碍了他们安装绳索,并且他们不顾命令继续攀爬的行为致使山上冰块坍塌,将正在山上安装绳子的其他几个夏尔巴人砸下了山。但这几个登山者却否认夏尔巴人的控诉,由此冲突愈演愈烈。夏尔巴人向这三个登山者投掷石子,拳脚相向,尔还透露说,一个愤怒的夏尔巴人甚至威胁要杀掉他。尽管双方最后还是结束了这次纷争,但美国登山者梅利莎·阿诺特(Melissa Arnot)还是警告这三个人趁着夏尔巴人未开始新一轮的暴乱,将他们用石头投掷致死之前,逃回他们的宿营基地。在这次纷争之后,双方在一位尼泊尔军官的见下签署了一份和平协议。7. A 450-Million-Year History7. 珠峰有着4.5亿年的历史Although the Himalayan Mountains formed 60 million years ago, Everest#39;s history actually goes back a lot further. The limestone and sandstone rock at the summit of the mountain was once part of sedimentary layers below sea level 450 million years ago. Over time, ocean floor rocks were forced together and pushed upward at a speed of up to 11 centimeters (4.5 in) per year, eventually reaching the current position. The upper formations of Everest now contain marine fossils of sea creatures and shells that once occupied the earlier ocean. Explorer Noel Odell first discovered the fossils embedded within Everest#39;s rocks in 1924, proving that the mountain had once been below sea level. The first rock specimens from Everest were brought back by Swiss climbers in 1956 and by an American climbing team in 1963.6Height Dispute05尽管喜马拉雅山脉是在6000万年前形成,但实际上珠穆朗玛峰却远在这之前就已形成。峰顶上的石灰岩和砂岩曾是4.5亿年前的海底沉积岩的一部分。随着时间的推移,海底岩石因受挤压而聚拢在一起,并且以每年11厘米(4.5英寸)的速度上升,最终形成了现在的高度。我们如今仍能在珠穆朗玛峰的上面部分见到几亿年前的海生物和贝壳化石。探险家诺埃尔·奥德尔(Noel Odell)在1924年第一次发现了嵌入珠穆朗玛峰岩石中的海洋化石,明了珠峰所在地区原是一片海洋。1956年的瑞士登山队和1963年的美国登山队首次带回了珠穆朗玛峰的岩石样本。6. Height Dispute6. 关于珠峰的海拔高度之争Exactly how tall is Mount Everest? That depends on what side of the border you#39;re on. China has said the peak is at 8,844 meters (29,016 ft), while Nepal says 8,848 meters (29,029 ft). That#39;s because China argues that the mountain should purely be measured by rock height, excluding the meters of snow at the very top. Whether or not that#39;s the better measure, the international community regularly includes snow when describing the heights of peaks around the world. The two countries came to an agreement in 2010, settling the official height as 8,848 meters. 5It#39;s Growing06珠穆朗玛峰究竟有多高?这可就得取决于你持哪一国的言论了。中国认为珠穆朗玛峰的高度为8844米(29016英尺),而尼泊尔却坚持认为珠峰的海拔高度为8848米(29029英尺)。这是因为中方认为对珠穆朗玛峰海拔的测量应该仅仅只以岩石高度为基准,而不能将峰顶积雪计算在内。不管那是否是更加合理的测量方法,国际社会公认的珠峰高度是将峰顶积雪计算在内的覆雪高度。两国在2010年就珠穆朗玛峰海拔问题达成一致,正式将珠穆朗玛峰的高度确定为8848米。5. It#39;s Growing5. 不断增长的高度Both Chinese and Nepalese ideas of the mountain#39;s height may be wrong, according to more recent measurements.A research team discovered in 1994 that Everest continues to grow approximately 4 millimeters (0.16 in) every year. The Indian subcontinent was originally an independent landmass that collided with Asia, forming the Himalayas, and the continental plates are still moving, pushing the mountains ever higher.Researchers from the American Millennium Expedition in 1999 placed a global positioning satellite device below the summit to measure growth. Their more accurate findings from the modern technology led to the official height of Everest being changed to 8,850 meters (29,035 ft). Meanwhile, other tectonic activity actually costs the mountain height, but the overall movement seems to be upward. 4Multiple Names07最新的测量结果显示,中国与尼泊尔关于珠穆朗玛峰高度的说法可能都不准确。1994年的一个研究小组发现,珠穆朗玛峰以每年4毫米(0.16英寸)左右的速度继续上升。印度次大陆原本是一个相当独立的地理单元,后来在漂移的过程中与欧亚大陆发生碰撞,形成了喜马拉雅山脉,然后印度板块推动着欧亚板块一起漂移,使喜马拉雅山脉逐年升高。1999年美国“千禧年珠峰测量计划”的研究人员在峰顶上安置了全球卫星定位系统,以此来测量珠峰高度。这种依靠现代科技测量出来的海拔高度更为精确,由此美国将珠穆朗玛峰的海拔高度正式更改为8850米(29035英尺)。同时,其他的一些地壳运动实际上会使珠穆朗玛峰的高度有所削减,但珠峰的整体运动似乎还是趋向于上升的。4. Multiple Names4. 多样的名称Although we know the mountain as ;Everest,; Tibetan natives have called the mountain by the ancient name ;;Chomolungma; (also spelled ;Qomolangma;) for centuries. The Tibetan name means ;Goddess Mother of Mountains.; But that isn#39;t the only other name it goes by. The Nepalese people know it as ;Sagarmatha,; meaning ;Forehead in the Sky,; so the mountain is now a part of the Nepalese ;Sagarmatha National Park.;The mountain was only named ;Everest; when British surveyor Andrew Waugh failed to find a commonly used local name. After studying maps of the surrounding areas and still being unable to make a decision, he named the mountain after Indian Surveyor General George Everest, head of the British team that first surveyed the Himalayas. Colonel Everest objected to the honor, but the British officially changed their name for the mountain from ;Peak XV; to ;Mount Everest; in 1865.3A Human Traffic Jam08尽管我们通常称此山为“埃佛勒斯峰(Everest)”,但藏族人民在几个世纪里对它的传统称谓却是“珠穆朗玛峰(Chomolungma或Qomolangma)”。将它的藏语名称简译出来就是“神女峰”(Goddess Mother of Mountains)。但这并不是这座山峰唯一的名字。尼泊尔人民将它称为“萨迦玛塔(Sagarmatha)”,其意是“高达天庭的山峰”(Forehead in the Sky),因此这座山峰如今属于“萨迦玛塔国家公园”(Sagarmatha National Park)的一部分。英国测量员安德鲁·华夫(Andrew Waugh)在测量此山时首次将其命名为 “埃佛勒斯峰”(Everest),因为他是在印度平原遥测的,并未进入西藏和尼泊尔,所以对这座山峰的其他当地名称一概不知。当他在地图上对周边地区巡视了一番之后,仍不能确定它的名称,于是他以印度测量局前任局长,即此次英国测量队的领头人乔治·埃佛勒斯(George Everest )的名字命名此山。尽管埃佛勒斯上校本人反对这个称谓,但英国还是在1865年正式将此山的名字由“第15峰(Peak XV)”更改为“埃佛勒斯山”。3. A Human Traffic Jam3. 珠峰上的“交通拥堵”Despite Everest costing thousands of dollars to climb, more people than ever are trying to summit it. In 2012, German mountaineer Ralf Dujmovits captured a shocking image showing hundreds of climbers lining up to reach the summit. Ralf had made the decision to turn back at the South Col of the mountain due to poor weather conditions when he spotted the painfully long queue. On May 19, 2012, climbers crowding one landmark near the summit faced a two-hour wait. In the course of just half a day, 234 people managed to reach the peak—but four people died, raising major concerns over the climbing process. Nepal specialists that year added a new fixed rope to ease congestion, and there have even been talks of installing permanent ladders.2The World#39;s Dirtiest Mountain09尽管登顶珠峰所需花费高达上万,但仍有越来越多的人尝试登顶珠峰。2012年,德国登山家拉尔夫·杜伊莫维茨(Ralf Dujmovits)拍摄了一张令人震撼的照片,照片拍摄的是一群攀登珠峰的登山者排队登顶的情景。拉尔夫在抵达珠峰南坳时,由于遇到恶劣的天气状况,他决定就此返回,但就在下山途中,他看到了这样一费力攀爬的登山长队。2012年5月19日,涌向这座“世界之巅”的大批登山者被堵在了峰顶附近,并在此滞留了两个多小时。仅在这半天里,就有234人成功登顶珠峰——但有四人在下山时丧生,这提高了人们在登峰过程中的安全意识。尼泊尔当局在那年还额外安装了一根新的固定绳索,以此来缓解珠峰上的交通拥堵,甚至曾经还有人提出要在珠峰上安装几架永久梯子。2. The World#39;s Dirtiest Mountain2. 世上最“脏”的山Countless photos document climbers on their way to the Everest summit, but we rarely see images of what they leave behind. Everest is littered with not just the corpses of climbers but an estimated 50 tons of waste, with more left behind each season. The slopes are strewn with disregarded oxygen bottles, climbing equipment, and plenty of human feces. The Eco Everest Expedition has hit the mountain each year since 2008 to tackle the problem, and they#39;ve collected over 13 tons of waste so far. The Nepalese government have enforced a new rule starting in 2014 that climbers must each bring down 8 kilograms (18 lb) of waste on their descent, else lose their ,000 deposit. Artists working on the “Everest 8848 Art Project” have turned 8 tons of the rubbish, including broken tents and beer cans, into 75 pieces of art. Sixty-five porters worked over two spring expeditions to carry down the trash, and the artists turned it into sculptures to highlight the issue of mess on the mountain. 1It#39;s Not The Tallest Mountain10有数不尽的照片记录着登山者攀登珠穆朗玛峰的过程,但我们却极少看到记录这些登山者遗留物的照片。珠穆朗玛峰上除了遇难登山者的尸体之外,还约有50余吨的废弃物,而且每个季节都会产生新的垃圾。被废弃的氧气罐、登山装备和人类排泄物在珠峰上随处可见。自2008年以来,珠峰生态探险队(Eco Everest Expedition)每年都会登上珠穆朗玛峰来处理垃圾污染问题,截至目前,他们已经拾捡了13余吨垃圾。尼泊尔政府就此还出台了一项新规定,从2014年开始,每位登山者必须携带8公斤(18磅)垃圾下山,否则他们的4000美元保金将被扣押。“珠峰8848艺术项目”(Everest 8848 Art Project)的艺术家们把8吨珠峰垃圾(包括破旧的帐篷和啤酒罐)变为75件艺术展品。65人在春季登顶珠峰两次,才将这些垃圾从珠峰上带了下来,艺术家们的这次“变废为宝”的展览是为了引起人们对珠峰环境问题的重视。1. It#39;s Not The Tallest Mountain 1. 珠穆朗玛峰并非世界最高峰Although Mount Everest is the highest point on Earth from sea level, Mauna Kea, an inactive Hawaiian volcano, holds the record as the world#39;s tallest mountain. Everest#39;s peak is at a higher altitude, but that doesn#39;t make it taller. Mauna Kea may only reach a height of 4,205 meters (13,796 ft) above sea level, but the volcano extends an incredible 6,000 meters (20,000 ft) below the water#39;s surface. Measured from its base on the ocean floor, its full height stands at 10,200 meters (33,465 ft) making it almost a mile taller that Everest. In fact, depending on how you measure it, Everest is neither the tallest mountain nor the highest peak. Chimborazo, in Ecuador, only reaches 6,267 meters (20,661 ft) above sea level, but it#39;s the highest point from the exact center of the Earth. This is because Chimborazo lies just one degree south of the equator. The Earth bulges at its midsection, so Ecuador#39;s sea level sits farther from the planet#39;s center than Nepal#39;s.虽然珠穆朗玛峰是地球上距海平面最高的山峰,但世界最高峰却是夏威夷的一座死火山——莫纳克亚山(Mauna Kea)。尽管珠穆朗玛峰峰顶处于高海拔,但那并不能额外延伸珠峰高度。而莫纳克亚山在海平面以上的高度虽然只有4205米(13796英尺),但不可思议的是,这座山却在海平面之下延伸了6000米(20000英尺)。如果从海底开始测量,那它的总高度将达到10200米(33465英尺),差不多比珠穆朗玛峰高了整整一英里。实际上,不论你采取何种测量方式,珠穆朗玛峰既不是海拔最高,也不是总高度最高的山峰。厄瓜多尔的钦拉索山(Chimborazo)虽然在海平面以上的高度只有6267米(20661英尺),但它却是离地心最远的地方。因为钦拉索山位于赤道以南一度左右的地方。地球刚好在它的中部区域凸出来,因此,厄瓜多尔的海平面离地心的距离较尼泊尔更远。注:文章转载自前十网,译者:李念 /201504/369937吉安市第三人民医院去除狐臭多少钱吉安腋臭医院

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