2019年09月16日 21:05:54|来源:国际在线|编辑:中国晚报
A special report on pensions养老保险特别报道Too much, too young太多,太年轻Watch your wallets: the baby-boomers are beginning to retire看住钱包:生育高峰期的一代人正在退休WHEN MOST LABOUR was agricultural, people generally toiled in the fields until they dropped. The idea of formal retirement did not become feasible until work moved from farms to factories. In 1889 Otto von Bismarck[1] famously introduced the world’s first (modest[2]) pension scheme in Germany. In the 20th century, when universal suffrage became widesp, a period of retirement after work was seen as a mark of a civilised social democracy.过去,大多数劳力只是下田干活,直到再也干不动,才结束在土地上辛勤的劳作。自劳动从牧场转到工厂开始,正式退休这个概念才被广为流传。1889年,俾斯麦首次在德国实施第一个(小范围)养老金方案。20世纪,选举逐渐开始普及,离职后如果能享有一段退休时间,是一个国家文明民主的象征。After the second world war pension provision increased markedly, but the number of elderly people was still quite small. In the 1970s and 1980s caring for them seemed easily affordable. Many countries even reduced their retirement ages.第二次世界大战之后,养老金大幅增涨,而老年人的数量仍旧较少。20世纪70年代和80年代之间,负担照管老年人的费用似乎是件很容易的事情。很多国家甚至降低了退休年龄。The demographic picture looks different now that the baby-boomers are starting to retire. In 1950 there were 7.2 people aged 20-64 for every person of 65 and more in the OECD. By 1980 the ratio had dropped to 5.1. Now it is around 4.1, and by 2050 it will be just 2.1. In short, every couple will be supporting a pensioner.但是现在情况有所不同,从统计图表来看,生育高峰期的一代人开始逐渐退休。1950年,在世界经济与合作组织成员国里,年龄在20-64岁间的人与65岁及65岁以上的老年人的比例为7.2。在1980年,该比例降低为5.1,现在将近4.1,到2050年,这个数字仅仅是2.1。简单来说,就是每对夫妇需资助一位养老金领取人。201105/136642Blood runs freely from slashed noses and necks. They even fight dirty, going for the eyes. The losers breathing chances for now are ground into the sand. But this beachmasters triumph is just the begining of his troubles. Ahead lie dozens of fights, and perhaps 100 matings all for the sake of his bloodline.鲜红的血液从被咬过的鼻子和脖子中流淌出来。它们有时还会下黑手,往眼睛上招呼。失败者的微弱呼吸声现在只有地下的沙子能够听到。但这位海滩新赢家的胜利只是他烦恼的开始。前方数十次搏斗在等待着,也许100个交配机会都是为了他的血统而存在。The need to pass on ones genetic legacy is a great motivator of migrations. Nothing else could drive the nomads of the folklands to tolerate life on land. Nothing else could make migrating mothers stand up to great predators. Or to dirve potential farthers to travel great distances to deadly battlefields.把自己的遗传遗产传承下去的需求激励着大迁徙。没有什么能驱使福克兰岛的这些游牧民们容忍生活在陆地上的生物。没有什么能让迁徙的母亲们直面强大的掠食动物。或者驱使迁徙的父亲们奔赴很远来到这个潜在的致命战场。词语解释:1. slash v. 刀砍2. triumph n. 胜利3. tolerate v. 容忍201111/161912Coping with Japan's nuclear disaster应对日本核灾难Living with radiation与辐射共生A sping cloud of economic and human costs 经济和民众开销忧虑蔓延开来Giving the brassicas a once-over测量青花菜的辐射量A PEN-LIKE dosimeter hangs around the neck of Katsunobu Sakurai, the tireless mayor of Minamisoma, measuring the accumulated radiation to which he has been exposed during the past two weeks of a four-week nuclear nightmare. The ing of 43 microsieverts is about the dosage he would get from a single chest x-ray. No cause for alarm, then. Yet he believes the radioactive particles from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear-power plant, 25km from his office, have led this once-prosperous city of 70,000 into a fight for its life.形似钢笔的放射量测量器戴在樱井胜延的脖子上,这位不知疲倦的南相马市市长正在测量他在过去两周中吸收的累积辐射量,而核噩梦已经持续四个周了。测量器显示的43毫西弗大约是他做一次胸透所接收的辐射量,这完全无害。然而,樱井市长相信:从距离自己办公室25千米外的福岛第一核电站飘来的放射性粒子,已经导致居住在这座曾经繁荣的城市的70,000市民不得不为生存而战。About 50,000 inhabitants who lived closest to the plant have been evacuated or have fled since radiation levels started to rise after the March 11th tsunami—which also left at least 1,400 of the town’s residents dead or missing. Even though external radiation has since returned to near-harmless levels, Mr Sakurai fears many of Minamisoma’s evacuees may never come back.3月11日发生海啸之后,辐射水平开始上升,居住在核电站附近的50,000名居民已经被疏散或者是逃离了住所,这场海啸至少造成镇上1,400名居民死亡或者失踪。尽管在此之后外部辐射回到了几乎无害的水平,樱井市长还是担心一些从南相马市疏散的居民可能不会再回到市里。Three worries predominate. One, the information passed out by the government and Tokyo Electric Power (TEPCO), which owns the Dai-ichi plant, may be unreliable. Two, the plant is still unstable, at risk of suddenly emitting vastly greater amounts of radioactive particles. Three, the longer it takes to stabilise, the more lasting damage wind- and waterborne radiation may do to the livelihoods of the farmers and fishermen who are the economic lifeblood of the community. If they go, so does the town.人们主要有三个顾虑。第一,政府和拥有第一核电站的东京电力公司(TEPCO)放出的信息可能不可靠。第二,核电站还是处于不稳定的状态,存在着突然释放大量放射性粒子的风险。第三,用于稳定核电站的时间越长,所产生持续的伤害存在的时间也就越长,同样的,水性辐射可能影响到农民和渔民的营生,他们可是这个城市的经济命脉。如果他们离开了,那么镇子也就完了。These worries resurfaced on April 7th when TEPCO started to inject nitrogen into one of the plant’s six stricken reactors. That was to prevent a repeat of the hydrogen explosions that blew radiation out of the plant soon after cooling systems failed in the wake of the tsunami.4月7日,东京电力公司(TEPCO)开始向核电站中六个损坏的反应堆的其中之一注入氮气,这令那些忧虑开始重新浮出水面。海啸发生之后冷却系统失效导致了氢气爆炸,这把放射物吹出了核电站,注入氮气的行为就是为了防止这一悲剧再次发生。Even before that news, Mr Sakurai was saying that he was fearful of another explosion. It was why he continued to discourage hope that the town could get back to normal. “The lack of information is making people deeply stressed and frustrated,” he said.即便在这消息发布之前,樱井市长就在说他害怕再次发生爆炸。这就是他一直不相信南相马市能恢复原样的原因。他说:“信息的缺乏让人们感到巨大的压力和沮丧。”201104/131793

ABBA 的 Mamma Mia A's Nick Watt is in ABBA heavenIt's just stuff gets more and more advanced everyday. We turn out to our collaboration with Google. The top rising search: The Dark Knight. Unless you’ve just come out of a suspended animation or something, you have doubtless heard that the latest Batman movie is out today. It is the most hyped movie of the summer. And there’s even a talk about a posthumous Oscar for Heath Ledger, who plays the villain Joker. Also rising: Muriel’s Wedding. It’s a 1994 movie. And we couldn’t figure out for the life of us why people were searching for it on Google. And then we caught a clip from the movie. Yeah, that’s it. There’s ABBA music in it. Then that explains it, because besides Batman, there is another movie opening today, and like Muriel’s Wedding, it’s about nuptials and ABBA music. The movie version of the obscenely popular musical Mamma Mia is out. And A’s Nick Watt is in ABBA heaven, or some might consider it ABBA hell.Take a chance on me. If you need me, let me know, gonna be around. If you’ve got no place to go, if you’re feeling down… Sorry, just can’t help myself. I love ABBA. So does everybody. For me, the love affair starts with the profound lyrics.Gimme gimme gimme a man after midnight.There was something in the air that night, Fernando.What happened to our love? It used to be so good.And this woman is responsible for a reincarnation.Did you think all of this was gonna happen? Did you think it could be this big?No.It’s called Mamma Mia, a musical based on the ABBA classics. That’s played in 19 countries.It went from the creative process to now running a mini industry.And now it’s on screen. I mean, Meryl Streep sings “The winner takes it all.” What more do you want? The guy who played Bond is in it. So is the guy who played Darcy. And some cuddly Swede.A fantasy, really.So what do the critics make of ABBA on celluloid?I know it’s Swedish, but it’s hardly Bergman, is it?No, it isn’t great cinema. But it doesn’t have to be. It’s about the music, which is too good to butcher.I’ve been humming ABBA all week. I’ve been humming it in bed. I wake up in the morning, thinking “gimme gimme gimme.”A small price to pay for a musical that has grossed two billion dollars and counting.Nick Watt, A News, London.参考中文翻译:每天的生活似乎都越来越先进。我们打开Google搜索引擎。排名最前的搜索关键词:The Dark Knight。除非你刚从一部被搁置已久的动画片里醒过来,或者忙于其他的事情,否则毫无疑问,你一定听说过了现在上映了最新的Batman电影。这是今年夏天炒作最热的一部电影。甚至还有关于扮演villain Joker的Heath Ledger评选奥斯卡奖的言论。热度提高的还有:Muriel’s Wedding。这是1994年的一部电影。我们想不明白为什么人们要在Google里对这部电影进行搜索。我们来简单了解一下这部电影。是的,原来是这样。因为这部影片里面有ABBA的音乐。这样就可以解释了,因为除了Batman之外,今天还有一部电影上映:像Muriel’s Wedding一样,是关于婚礼和ABBA音乐的。流行音乐Mamma Mia的电影版也已经出现。A的记者Nick Watt正处在ABBA的天堂,也有人认为是ABBA的地狱。相信我吧,如果你需要我,请让我知道,我会挺身而出。如果你无处可去,如果你感到失望……对不起,我不能自助。每个人都一样,对我来说,恋爱随着深奥的抒情诗开始。午夜之后给我给我给我一个人…………那晚夜空中弥漫着某种气氛,Fernando。我们的爱出现什么问题了呢?过去一直那么好。这个女子要对她的再生负责。你认为所有的这一切都会发生吗?你认为作用这么大吗?不。它的名字是Mamma Mia,基于ABBA古典音乐的一种音乐,19世纪演奏的最多。它经历了一个创造性的过程,现在已经领导一个微型产业。现在应经搬上荧屏。我的意思是,Meryl Streep演唱了这首“The winner takes it all”。你还想要什么呢?扮演Bond的人在里面,扮演Darcy的人也在里面。还有一些赏心悦目的瑞典人。这简直就是一个幻想。我知道是瑞典的,但是不可能是伯格曼的,对吗?不,这并不是一部伟大的电影。而且它也没必要伟大。这是关于音乐的,对屠夫来说已经太好了。我整个星期都在哼唱ABBA音乐。躺在床上在唱,早上醒来也在唱,心里想着“给我给我给我……”只要花很少的钱,就能买到这首票房20亿并且还在增加的音乐剧了。200811/57461

Japan's disaster日本的灾难A crisis of leadership, too 也是领导力的危机The many-headed catastrophe points to deeper-seated problems in governing Japan棘手的灾祸背后,日本政府深层次的弊病显露出来SINCE the lives of hundreds of thousands of ordinary Japanese were turned upside down by earthquake, tsunami, fire and looming nuclear threat, people around the globe have watched, amazed, at the survivors’ composure—“stoicism” is the word they most often reach for. There have been few complaints, just civic-minded initiative. All along the coast, the urgent talk is not just about survival in the face of shortages of food, water and fuel. Stricken communities are desperate to start rebuilding their towns.地震,海啸,大火以及日益严重的核辐射把日本人的生活搅得翻天覆地,几十万日本人受到影响。而此时此刻,全世界都将目光聚焦日本,惊叹于幸存者的沉着淡定。而“坚忍克己”是他们嘴边形容日本最常用的词。日本人很少抱怨什么,有的只是互帮互助。目前,震区食物,水源以及燃料短缺,对于灾区人民来说,最迫切的不仅仅是如何活下去,还是重建家园Stoicism is an admirable response to what fate deals you. It also serves as a coping mechanism in the face of incomprehension. And the Japanese no longer just find it hard to understand how nature could deal such a blow; increasingly, they want to know why the government of a rich and orderly land should be taking so long to tame an overheating nuclear plant and get help to communities ravaged by the tsunami. A lack of water, food and warmth are a fresh and acute source of suffering. Despite the scale of the humanitarian disaster, some of the suffering is avoidable. The system is letting citizens down.面对自然的“摧残”,“坚忍克己”是多么的令人敬佩。对于自己无法理解的东西,保持坚忍克己,也实为不错。现在,日本不仅不明白自然为何会如此残暴,他们更难以理解的是,为何在一个如此富裕有序的国度里,政府却要花如此长的时间才能控制住过热的核机组,才能援救饱受海啸摧残的人民。目前,人们饱受着食物以及饮水短缺的痛苦,情况紧急。撇开大规模的人道主义灾难不说,某些痛苦还是可以避免的。日本的国家体制让人民失望至极。This criticism may seem harsh. For a start, Naoto Kan, the prime minister, has maintained relative calm despite the menacing situation at Fukushima Dai-ichi, the crippled nuclear plant. His government has also been far more transparent than its predecessors. The Bank of Japan acted promptly, providing liquidity to prevent a natural disaster from becoming a financial one.批评的声音也许还真是刺耳。一开始,尽管福岛核电站爆炸,情况紧急,但日本首相菅直人处事还是比较冷静的。菅直人当局也要比前任政府公开透明的多。日本中央也是迅速做出反应,出动流动资金,避免灾害殃及金融业。201103/129760

Yoursquo;re a polar explorer and yoursquo;ve just reached the north pole. The huskies are yapping, the cameras are y and yoursquo;re just about to unfurl the flag when, all of a sudden, the north pole becomes the south pole. Imagine your chagrin. Okay, so it doesnrsquo;t really happen that fast, but itrsquo;s true that in the past the earthrsquo;s magnetic poles have switched places. In fact, it seems to happen roughly every 250,000 years or so. How do we know this? When lava is in its molten state, the atoms in it can move around fairly easily. At this time some atoms, like iron, will align themselves with the earthrsquo;s magnetic field in a recognizable way. Then, as the lava solidifies into rock, these little compasses get frozen in position. Itrsquo;s like writing your name in wet cement.【词汇注释】unfurl v. 展开all of a sudden 突然chagrin n. 懊恼roughly adv. 大概lava n. 熔岩align v.排列solidify v.凝固你是名极地探险者,你刚刚到达北极。爱斯基犬在狂吠,相机已经准备好了,你正要展开旗帜,突然,北极变成了南极。想象下你的懊恼。事实上,磁场变换并没有那么快。但是在过去地球的磁场确实发生了变换,事实上,大概每25万年左右,磁场就要发生改变。我们是如何知道的?当熔岩处于融化状态时,其中的原子能轻易地移动。这时候,有些原子比如铁原子,以一种可识别的方式按照地球磁场的方向排列,当熔岩凝固成岩石时,这些小的指南针会在原地冷凝。这就像将你的名字写在湿的水泥上。201111/161121

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