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楼主:问医健康 时间:2020年01月27日 23:19:44 点击:0 回复:0
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Even though a quinoa-based vegetarian bowl is not my idea of the ideal workday lunch, I am excited to check out the restaurant Eatsa the next time I am in San Francisco. It is a restaurant without employees.尽管藜麦素食饭并不是我理想的工作餐,但我很高兴可以在下次去旧金山时见识一下Eatsa餐厅。那是一家没有员工的餐厅。To be more precise, no visible ones. There is a staff of five or six cooks assembling the bowls, but they work completely behind the scenes. The typical customer interacts with zero Eatsa employees on a typical visit: she orders and pays via a smartphone or tablet, then picks up her food from a cubbyhole displaying her name. Prices are low, and initial reviews are quite good.说得更准确些,是没有看得见的员工。餐厅里有五六个厨师配餐,但是他们完全在后厨工作。就餐时,通常顾客不会与Eatsa的任何员工互动:顾客通过智能手机或者平板电脑点餐并付款,然后从显示其姓名的餐架上取餐。价格低廉,初期评价都相当好。Is this just an updated version of the old automats, with iPads replacing coin slots, or is it something more? There are indications that Eatsa’s founders want it to be the start of something genuinely new: a close to 100 per cent automated restaurant. Food preparation there is highly optimised and standardised, and it is probably no coincidence that the location’s first general manager had a background in robotics.这究竟只是用iPad取代了投币口的旧式自动售货机的升级版,还是不止如此?有迹象表明,Eatsa的创始人希望它开启一种全新的事物——接近100%自动化的餐厅。那里的备餐工作高度优化且流程标准化,而且Eatsa第一任经理拥有机器人学背景这一点很可能并非巧合。But the fact that the restaurant’s “front of house” (ie the dining area and customer interactions) are virtually 100 per cent automated is more interesting to me than the question of whether the “back of house” (the kitchen) ever will be. Interesting because as front of house automation sps, it is going to put to the test one of the most widely held notions about work in the coming age of automation: that there will always be lots of service jobs because we desire a lot of human interaction.但是,对我来说,餐厅的“前台”区域(即就餐区及顾客互动区)几乎100%的自动化要比“后厨”是否将实现自动化有趣得多。有趣之处在于,随着前台自动化的普及,关于在即将到来的自动化时代中的就业的最普遍观念之一将承受考验,这个观念认为总会有许多的务类工作,因为我们渴望大量的人际互动。I agree with the second half of that statement, but I am not so sure about the first. We are a deeply social species and even an introvert like me enjoys spending time with friends and loved ones in the physical world. I have also learnt to value business lunches and dinners (even though I would rather be off by myself ing or writing) because they are an important part of how work advances.我同意该观点的后面一半,但是我对前半部分并不确定。我们是高度社会化的物种,即使像我这样内向的人也很享受在现实世界里与朋友和爱人共度的时光。我也学会了看重商业午餐和晚餐(即便我宁愿自己一个人看书或写东西),因为它们是推进工作的重要部分。But in the great majority of cases, when I am out I do not value the interactions with the waiting staff and other service workers. They are not unpleasant or terribly burdensome, but they do get in the way of what I want from the restaurant experience: to eat well and to talk to my tablemates. Listening to a recitation of the specials, getting the paper bill and handing off a credit card and learning the server’s name (this happens in America) are distractions from my restaurant experience, not additions to it.但是,在绝大多数情况下,当我外出时,我并不重视与侍者和其他务人员的互动。这些互动过程并非令人不快或特别累人,但确实妨碍了我想要得到的用餐体验——吃得好并且和共同进餐者聊天。听侍者背招牌菜、拿到账单、交出信用卡、记住侍者的名字(这种情况出现在美国)都会干扰我的用餐体验,而不是锦上添花。Do most people feel the same, most of the time? I do not know, and I doubt there has been any good way of knowing until now, because technology was not mature or cheap enough to enable smooth and cost-effective automation of many service interactions.多数人在多数情况下的感觉都是这样吗?我不知道,我也怀疑目前为止有什么好办法来搞清楚这个问题,因为技术还不成熟或者还没便宜到保务业互动拥有顺畅且成本划算的自动化体验。 /201509/400014Despite car and truck sales that motored past 16 million for the first time since 2007, recalls dominated the news for most of the year. General Motors GM 1.42% held center stage, dealing with cascading revelations about faulty ignition switches and recalling millions of vehicles. While GM opted for something approaching full disclosure of its missteps , publishing an report into company-wide fumbles, Japanese airbag maker Tanaka chose to stonewall. It left any remedies up to its beleaguered customers, notably Honda and Toyota. They are the ones who deal with the fallout of exploding safety devices that fatally fired shrapnel throughout the passenger compartment.2014年,尽管汽车销量自2007年以来首次超过1600万辆,但占据媒体头条的还是各类召回事故。在召回舞台上最活跃的是通用汽车公司,由于不断曝出点火开关故障,通用今年已经召回了几百万辆汽车。这家汽车制造商选择勇敢曝光自己的失误,并公开发布了一份自查报告。而日本气囊生产商高田公司却对“气囊门”三缄其口,转而把补救措施留给其深陷困境的客户本田和丰田来实施。有问题的气囊爆炸后,会向驾驶室弹出致命碎片。On the sales front, General Motors and Ford F -0.13% lost market share to Chrysler, which leveraged its Jeep brand to previously unimagined heights – and then, metaphorically left its heritage behind when it established legal domicile in the Netherlands and changed its name to FCA US LLC.在销量方面,通用和福特的部分市场份额被克莱斯勒蚕食,后者已经把Jeep品牌成功提升到此前难以想象的高度。随后,克莱斯勒将它的光辉历史抛在身后,将总部搬到荷兰,并更名为FCA US LLC。Among the year’s biggest surprises was the plunge in gasoline pries. Economists differed on the economic impact—money in the pockets of consumers offset by declines in exploration and drilling activity—but everyone agreed that it was bearish for small cars and hybrids. The combination of cheap gas and a steep sticker price made the Cadillac ELR the runaway winner of the most disliked car of the year award. Only 155 of the Volt-based ,000 cars found buyers in November.今年最令人惊喜的消息还包括油价下跌。经济学家对油价下跌的经济影响也是见仁见智,一方面认为消费者因此节省了不少油钱,一方面则认为这种趋势会影响石油的开采钻探活动。但大家普遍认为这会影响小型车和混合动力车的销量。油价下跌加上车价过高,使得凯迪拉克公司的电动轿跑ELR稳居2014年最不受欢迎的车型“宝座”。11月份,这款售价高达8万美元的电动跑车只卖出了155辆。So what does 2015 portend? Here are some educated guesses.那么,于汽车业而言,2015年又意味着什么?以下是一些有根据的猜测。Auto sales: Car sales reach 17 million but manufacturers scramble to adjust capacity as trucks and SUVs soar in popularity. Pressure to hold down corporate fuel averages drives margins on small cars far below break-even.汽车销量:2015年,汽车销量将达到1700万辆,但随着皮卡和SUV的走俏,各大厂商也会纷纷调整产能。低油价的压力将导致小型车的利润更加单薄。Detroit Three: The other two Michigan-based manufacturers still face bumps. General Motors copes with continued fallout from its ignition switch recall while Ford fights through the most aggressive launch period in the company’s history.底特律三巨头:另两家底特律车企仍会遇到一些磕磕绊绊。通用还要继续应对“点火门”事件的余波,而福特将进入该公司有史以来最激进的产品发布期。Japanese Three: Honda ts water while it waits for bold new designs from its Americanized management team to reach market, particularly the Acura NSX super car, which has been on the auto show circuit now for several years. Focused now on his legacy, CEO Carlos Ghosn drives executives even harder to meet targets in his latest three-year plan while he grooms a successor. As for Toyota, Automotive News declares that it is firing on “all cylinders” before its move from Southern California with fresh products in key segments.日本三巨头:在本田的美国化管理团队将新品投放市场之前,该公司还会原地踏步,尤其是它的讴歌NSX超跑,这款车型已经在各大车展上亮相好几年了,但至今仍未上市。本田CEO卡洛斯o高森一边督促高管团队努力实现他的“三年计划”目标,一边培养继承人。《汽车新闻》报道称,丰田公司在携新产品搬离南加州工厂之前,正处于“马力全开”的状态。German Three:Mercedes-Benz begins to sag as new lower-priced Benz’s inevitably erode its once invincible “the best or nothing” status. At BMW, imminent arrival of a new 7-series cements its status as the preferred brand of Scarsdale, Shaker Heights, and Santa Monica. A new A3, starting at , 795, should nicely lift Audi’s sales beyond 2014’s 15% climb, and a new Q7 SUV should nicely lift profits.德系三巨头:由于奔驰的几款低价产品不可避免地会损害它“要么最好,要么什么都不是”(the best or nothing)的商誉,该公司也开始陷入低迷。而即将推出的新7系轿车则会进一步巩固宝马在美国富人圈中的地位。另外,起价30,795美元的奥迪A3,很可能会使奥迪的销量较2014年增长15%,新款Q7也将进一步提高奥迪的利润。Chinese manufacturers:Coming to the U.S.? Warren Buffett’s BYD says it is arriving in 2015 and Geely in 2016 but we’ve been hearing that someone was coming since at 2006. The refinement of Chinese cars is the issue. With more than 80 local automakers producing 524 different models in China, Ramp;D money is sp too thinly to produce meaningful results.中国厂商:中国汽车进军美国?巴菲特持股的比亚迪汽车公司称,它将于2015年登陆美国市场,吉利汽车也将于2016年进入美国市场。不过自2006年起,我们就一直在听说中国车企要登陆美国。中国汽车最大的硬伤是做工问题。中国有80多家汽车厂商,生产的车型多达524款,研发资金铺得太开,太单薄,以至于很难获得有意义的业绩。Tesla:In an effort to blunt criticism about slow refueling times for battery-powered cars, Tesla TSLA -1.54% starts to roll out of a network of battery-swap stations. CEO Elon Musk must hope he can outdo Shai Agassi’s Better Place, which tried to build a whole company around battery-swaps before going bankrupt in 2013.特斯拉:为了缓解外界对特斯拉电动汽车充电时间问题的诟病,特斯拉开始推出一个通过换电池快速充电的充电站网络。CEO埃隆o马斯克肯定希望自己的运气比夏伊o阿加西的Better Place公司好一些,这家公司在2013年破产前做的就是电池更换充电站业务。Headquarter shifts: With Toyota leaving for Texas and Mercedes headed toward North Carolina or Georgia from New Jersey, look for Subaru to chart its own path when it builds its new headquarters. One option: Moving closer to its customers by relocating in Vermont.换总部:随着丰田迁至德州,奔驰从新泽西搬往北卡罗来纳州或乔治亚州,斯巴鲁也要建它的新总部了。它的一个选择是搬到离其客户群更近的佛蒙特州。CEOs: Newbies Mary Barra at GM and Mark Fields at Ford start playing close attention to the moves made by FCA’s Sergio Marchionne. Despite running his growing empire on two continents, Marchionne tacked on a U.S market share gain of 1.2 points, unhindered by one of the weakest product lineups in the business and troubles with his much heralded eight-speed transmission.CEO:作为汽车业新人,通用CEO玛丽o芭拉和福特CEO马克o菲尔兹开始密切观注菲亚特和克莱斯勒集团CEO的塞尔吉奥o马基奥尼的一举一动。虽然他的商业帝国横跨欧美两个大陆,但马基奥尼还是成功地把公司的美国市场份额提高了1.2个点,完全没有受到公司最弱的一条产品线以及八速变速箱问题的影响。Awards: Despite early wins for VW’s Golf GTI, the Detroit-centric jurors of the North American Car and Truck award 2015 prizes to Ford’s Mustang as well as Ford’s F-150 pickup truck.奖项:尽管大众的高尔夫GTI先拔头筹,但偏向自家人的2015年北美汽车大奖的评审员们还是对福特的野马和F-150皮卡不吝溢美之辞。Truck wars: Awards aside, Ford’s aluminum pickup is hard to build and slow to sell, leaving an opening for Ram’s fast-rising 1500 while Nissan tries to forget the failure of its first full-size truck when it launches the second-generation Titan with the biggest of big rig styling. The industry’s biggest secret is revealed by veteran executive John Krafcik in Automotive News: In the over ,000 category, pickups and SUVs distributed through non-premium dealers outsell German luxury brands.皮卡大战:如果把得奖的问题抛在一边,福特的全铝皮卡生产起来很不容易,卖得也比较慢,这就为快速崛起的道奇公羊(Dodge Ram)1500提供了机会。同时,日产也试图忘掉该公司第一款全尺寸皮卡,也就是采用双拖斗造型的第二代Titan皮卡的失利。汽车业老将约翰o克拉福西克向《汽车新闻》透露了这个行业的最大秘密:在5万美元以上的市场区间,平价品牌的皮卡和SUV的销量要超过德系豪华品牌。Brands with the most to make up for in 2015:Volkswagen, whose stale product line depressed sales by 11%, thereby delaying Ferdinand Piech’s plans for global supremacy, and Volvo, down 17%, which has yet to make any progress under its Chinese owner.2015年最需要迎头赶上的品牌:由于产品线陈旧,大众今年的销量下降了11%,影响了费迪南德o皮切的“称霸全球”计划。沃尔沃的销量则下跌了17%,自从被中国车企收购后,该公司至今还没有任何进步。Brands with the most incentive to coast in 2015:Jeep, which must be exhausted after lifting sales an astonishing 44% on the back of the new Cherokee, and Subaru, now the 10th most popular brand in America after improving its sales by 21% in its usual fashion: quietly.2015年风头最劲的品牌:在新款切诺基的拉动下,Jeep在2014年的销量惊人地拉高了44%,而斯巴鲁的销量则静悄悄地提高了21%,现已成为美国第十大最受欢迎的汽车品牌。Alternative fuels: For the first time since diesel-powered cars from Europe started arriving here in the 1950s, old first-person accounts about the joys of driving a diesel fall off to near zero. They are replaced by new first-person accounts about the joys of driving cars with ridiculously high horsepower like the 580-hp Chevrolet Camaro ZL1 and Dodge’s Challenger SRT Hellfire with 707 hp. Elsewhere: fuel-cell cars with their longer cruising range move center-stage, stealing the limelight from battery-powered cars.替代燃料:自从柴油车于上世纪50年代从欧洲进入美国以来,人们对柴油车的热情首次冷却殆尽,取而代之的是马力高得吓人的雪佛兰CamaroZL1(580匹马力),和707匹马力的道奇挑战者SRT地狱火等车型。另外,续航里程更长的燃料电池汽车也开始登上舞台,从电池动力汽车那里抢走了不少风头。Technology:Cadillac will introduce high-resolution streaming in the rearview mirror, which improves the field of vision by about four times greater than a traditional mirror by removing obstructions like pillars and passengers. Just the thing for aging Cadillac drivers with stiff necks. Coming next: a “beep, beep, beep” signal like that used by garbage trucks whenever the car is driven in reverse.科技:凯迪拉克将在汽车的后视镜添加高清视频功能,其视野要比传统的后视镜开扩四倍,因为它能够在最大程度上减少了车柱和乘客对视线的影响,对于上了年纪的凯迪拉克车主和颈椎不好的人来说,这的确是个福音。下一个即将被广泛采用的技术,则是让汽车在倒车时,能够发出像垃圾车那样的“滴滴声”。Autonomous cars: Researchers are working on devices that will automatically park your car in a parking lot without you being in, or near, the car. It will also slip a note under the wipers of the car next to it with your phone number and insurance carrier in case of any scratches.自动驾驶汽车:研究人员正在研究能让汽车自动倒车入库的设备,让你甚至不必坐在车里就能完成倒车。这样你就不必在不小心刮蹭到别人的车时,往人家的雨刮器下面留张字条,并附上你的电话号码了。Dealers: Car dealers work toward reducing the paperwork involved in buying a car and the hours it takes to fill it out. That will give them more time to devote to upselling add-ons such as extended warranties, paint and fabric protection, and rust-proofing.经销商:经销商们正在努力精简购车的文书手续以及时间。这会使他们留出更多的时间向消费者推销延长质保、喷漆、织物保护、防锈等附加务。Classic cars:Prices plummet as an enormous supply of post-war classics, hidden away on an off-shore island, becomes available for the first time in 50 years. Collectors are especially eager to find Packards, Studebakers, Hudsons, Nashes, Kaisers, and Henry J’s. More’s the surprise because all of the cars are in running condition and are used as daily drivers.老爷车:由于今年在一个海外小岛上发现了一大批尘封50年之久的老爷车,导致现在二战后的老爷车的供给充足,价格也显著下降。收藏家们尤其喜欢Packards、Studebakers、Hudsons、Nashes、Kaisers和Henry J’s等型号的老爷车。更令人吃惊的是这批老爷车的车况都十分良好,能够满足日常使用。(财富中文网) /201501/352963Peer-to-peer markets used to be simple: there was eBay. If you had a broken laser pointer you wanted to sell, eBay was the place to find a buyer. Then came the local marketplace Craigslist and, before long, peer-to-peer markets were linking buyers and sellers in every market imaginable: crafts (Etsy); chores (TaskRabbit); transport (Uber); accommodation (Airbnb); consumer loans (Zopa); and even booze (Drizly).个人对个人(P2P)市场曾经很简单:最初只有一个eBay。如果你想卖掉一坏了的激光笔,在eBay能找到买家。接下来有了本地交易网站Craigslist,不久之后,P2P平台把所有你能想到的市场中的买卖双方都联系在了一起:手工艺品(Etsy);零工(TaskRabbit);交通(Uber);住宿(Airbnb);消费贷款(Zopa);甚至酒类(Drizly)。It was exciting, for a while, to realise that you could actually get a car home on a Saturday night in San Francisco, or make money renting out your attic, but the backlash has been simmering for some time. That backlash mixes two complaints, elegantly exemplified when a group of taxicab owners and drivers sued Uber in Atlanta a year ago.当你意识到自己真的能在周六晚上的旧金山坐车回家、或是出租阁楼赚些钱时,你会兴奋一段时间,但是反对情绪一直在发酵,其中夹杂着两层抱怨,在一年前亚特兰大出租车公司和司机起诉Uber一案中被很好地展现了出来。“Uber has been operating in Atlanta with little concern about the safety of their passengers and zero concern for the laws that protect them,” said one of the plaintiffs in a statement to The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. “Our incomes have steadily dropped since Uber started and legally licensed drivers are leaving the business.”“Uber在亚特兰大的运营几乎毫不考虑乘客的安全问题,也从未顾及保护乘客的法律,”一名原告在《亚特兰大宪法日报》(Atlanta Journal-Constitution)上发表声明称,“自Uber开始运营以来,我们的收入节节下滑,拥有合法执照的出租车司机正在离开这个行业。”In other words, peer-to-peer services such as Uber are said to be hazardous, and they are also unwelcome competition for incumbents. (Several studies have supported the common-sense conclusion that these new competitors threaten the revenue of existing players.)换句话说,Uber等P2P务被称为危险务,而且给现有从业者带来了不受欢迎的竞争。(一些研究持这个常识性结论:新竞争者威胁到了现有从业者的收入。)These might seem very different issues. It’s one thing to worry about signposting fire exits when you let out a spare room on Airbnb. Protecting the profit margins of fine upstanding local hoteliers is another matter.这两点或许貌似截然不同的问题。你在Airbnb上出租一个单间时担心消防通道指示是一回事,而保护当地正规酒店经营者的利润空间是另外一回事。Yet the two questions are inevitably tangled up, because both touch on the way incumbents are regulated. One would hope that regulators protect consumers, employees and the public by making it more difficult for drunks and sexual predators to drive cars, for firetraps to host unsuspecting tourists, and for employers to exploit workers. But some regulations seem designed more to protect insiders than to protect consumers.不过,这两个问题不可避免地被搅在一起,因为它们都触及了现有从业者受到监管的方式。人们希望监管机构通过让醉酒者和性侵者难以当专车司机、易失火建筑不能接待毫无戒心的游客、以及雇主无法剥削工人,来保护消费者、雇员以及公众的利益。但是,一些法规似乎更倾向于保护局内人,而不是消费者。Consider the New York taxi medallion system: you can’t drive a taxicab without one, and they’ve been million-dollar assets at times, often owned by investors and leased to drivers at a rate of 0 or more a day. New kids Uber and Lyft not only compete for passengers, they compete for drivers too, who may prefer to pay commission to these new players than the flat fee to the medallion owner.想想纽约出租车牌照制度:在没有牌照的情况下你不能开出租车,出租车牌照不时成为数百万美元的资产,往往归投资者所有,由其以每天100美元或更高的价格把牌照租给司机。菜鸟Uber和Lyft不止争夺乘客,它们还争抢司机。相比向牌照所有者交份儿钱,司机或许更倾向于把佣金交给这些新老板。Taxi medallions are a scarce asset created purely by a stroke of the regulator’s pen, and you don’t need to be a hardcore libertarian to conclude that, in this case, the regulator is motivated by protecting the value of this asset. Nor does it take a free-market fundamentalist to believe that if consumers think that taxicabs provide a safer service, they will pay for that safer service.出租车牌照成为稀缺资产,纯粹是由监管者的一纸文书造成的。在这种情况下,即使不是狂热的自由主义者,你也能看出监管者的动机是保护这些资产的价值。再说,不只是自由市场原教旨主义者才会相信:如果消费者认为出租车提供的务更安全,他们会花钱购买更安全的务。It may help to approach the debate from a different direction. Are these new players providing a valuable new service or are they merely an arbitrage play, using technology to sidestep taxes that others must pay, and to limbo-dance under regulatory hurdles that rivals must jump?这或许有助于从不同角度来探究这场辩论。这些新竞争者是否提供了有价值的新务,还是只是利用技术规避了其他人必须付的税款以此套利、从其他竞争者必须跳过去的监管障碍下面钻了过去?If the economic value is real, then it is up to the regulators to figure out how to unleash that value rather than trying to legislate it out of existence.如果它们有实实在在的经济价值,那么就该由监管者琢磨出如何释放价值,而不是试图通过立法去消灭它。A new study of peer-to-peer markets by economists Liran Einav, Chiara Farronato and Jonathan Levin argues that the economic value is there all right. Peer-to-peer markets make two things possible that were previously hard to imagine.丽兰褠纳夫(Liran Einav)、基娅拉法罗纳托(Chiara Farronato)和乔纳森莱文(Jonathan Levin) 3位经济学家对P2P市场进行的新研究发现,其经济价值确实存在。P2P市场让两件过去难以想象的事情成为可能。The first is to make arid markets lush and fertile. The quintessential example is eBay, enabling buyers and sellers of the quirkiest products to find each other and gain by trading. Etsy fits the eBay mould, with sellers who will knit you a cuddly toy designed to resemble a dissected frog, a product that seems unlikely to find a niche on the high street.第一,它令贫瘠的市场变得富饶而肥沃。eBay就是一个典型的例子,它使得离奇产品的买卖双方找到彼此并从交易中受益。Etsy和eBay的模式一样,你可以在这里找到出售像肢解的青蛙一样的毛绒玩具(似乎不太可能在商业街找到立足之地的产品)的卖家。The second peer-to-peer trick is to introduce part-timers into the market to meet surges in demand. It’s inefficient to build hotels just to cope with the summer rush, or taxis to cope with New Year’s Eve but, if the demand is there, peer-to-peer markets can pull in a bit of extra supply. As a result, it should be easier to get a cab at 11pm on a Friday, and prices for hotel rooms should be more reasonable during school holidays.P2P第二个妙招是将兼职者引入该市场以满足需求激增时的情况。只是为了应对暑假旺季就建设新酒店,或是为了解决新年夜的打车高峰而增加出租车——那是效率低下的;但是,只要有需求,P2P市场就可以引入一些额外的供应。结果就是,周五晚上11点在P2P平台更容易叫到车,学校假期时P2P提供的客房价格更合理。Peer-to-peer markets are well worth having. The challenge for regulators, then, is to catch up. How should Airbnb landlords who let a room for 10 nights a year be placed on a level playing field with regular bed-and-breakfast landlords? Are Uber drivers employees (as a California labour commissioner recently ruled)? Or freelancers using Uber’s software to help them do their jobs (as Uber insists)? Or something else?P2P市场非常值得拥有。因此,监管者面临的挑战是赶上其发展的脚步。应该如何把Airbnb上每年只把房间出租10晚的房东与长期经营住宿加早餐旅店(Bamp;B)的房东放在同一个监管层面上?Uber专车司机是公司雇员(就像加州劳工委员会最近裁决的那样),还是利用Uber软件工作的自由职业者(像Uber主张的那样)?或是其他性质?James Surowiecki, writing in The New Yorker, recently argued for “something else”, and called for a regulatory overhaul to give “gig-economy workers a better balance of flexibility and security”. That sounds like an admirable aim, although achieving it isn’t straightforward. Giving pensions, vacation rights or unemployment insurance to Uber drivers or TaskRabbit “taskers” would require both clever rules and clever admin systems.詹姆斯苏洛维尔奇(James Surowiecki)最近在《纽约客》(New Yorker)的专栏认为是这属于“其他性质”,呼吁进行监管改革给“零工经济的工作者提供一个更好地兼顾灵活性和安全性的办法”。这听起来像是一个令人向往的目标,尽管实现它并没有那么简单。为Uber司机或是TaskRabbit的“任务方”提供养老金、带薪休假或是失业保险,将需要明智的法规和明智的管理体系。Peer-to-peer markets may once have been simple; now there is more at stake than the occasional broken laser pointer.P2P市场或许曾经很简单;但如今它关系到的远远不只是偶尔有一坏掉的激光笔。 /201510/403555

Ebay’s chief executive has added weight to Google’s antitrust defence by saying that the pair are direct competitors in online shopping, echoing the US search group’s claim that Brussels misunderstands how people buy products online.eBay首席执行官约翰#8226;多纳霍(John Donahoe)的言论持了美国搜索集团谷歌(Google)的反垄断辩护。他说,eBay与谷歌在网络购物领域是直接竞争对手,这呼应了谷歌的说法。谷歌曾声称,布鲁塞尔方面没有理解人们的在线购物方式。John Donahoesaid in an interview with the Financial Times that barriers were breaking down between different areas of online commerce. The auction website chief’s comments support arguments aly made by Google in its first response to the European Commission’s landmark competition case.在接受英国《金融时报》采访时,多纳霍表示,不同电商领域之间的壁垒正在打破。该拍卖网站CEO的言论,持了谷歌首次回应欧盟委员会(European Commision)反垄断案时的说法。Brussels’ complaint, announced this month, focuses on a claim that Google has abused its dominance of web search to squeeze out rival specialist shopping search engines by favouring its own in-house service.本月,欧盟公布了对谷歌的起诉,重点是指控谷歌涉嫌滥用在网络搜索方面的主导地位,通过偏向其旗下务的方式,将其在购物搜索引擎方面的对手排挤出市场。Google has responded by saying that European regulators have not recognised how it is dwarfed in online shopping by eBay and Amazon, making questions about how it handles product queries on its own site beside the point.谷歌对此回应称,欧洲监管机构没有认识到谷歌在网络购物领域比eBay和亚马逊(Amazon)逊色许多,以致其对谷歌网站处理商品查询方式的质疑离题万里。Asked if eBay was a direct competitor of Google Shopping, Mr Donahoe said: “Yes#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;We are a strong commerce competitor [of Google’s].”在被问到eBay是否是谷歌购物(Google Shopping)直接竞争对手时,多纳霍表示:“没错……我们是(谷歌的)强劲商业对手。” /201504/372530

Comet彗星Chinese records of comets dated back to a lon,g tim,e ago.During the Spring and Autumn Period, some 2,200 years ago, Chinese documents aly had records of comets, among which the most verifiable one is the record of a comet, which appeared in 613 , iri Sprin,g an,d Autumn, Annals.It iS recog-nized as the earliest mention of Halley#39;s Comet in the world, 670 years earlier than the Western Europe, where the earliest record of Halley#39;s Comet was in AD 66.中国古代关于彗星的纪事很早。早在2200多年前春秋时期的古文献中已有关于彗星的记录。最可靠的是《春秋》对出现于公元前613年的彗星记录。这是世界上关于哈雷彗星的最早记录。西欧对哈雷彗星的最早记载是公元66年,这比中国最早的记载晚了670余年。Since Halley#39;s Comet visits the earth once every 76 years, it came back to the earth 29 times during a period of 2,149 years from 240 ( the 7th year of the reign of the First Emper-or of Qin)to 1910 ( the 2nd year of the reign of Emperor Xuantong of Qing).Each of these vis-its was clearly recorded by Chinese scholars.J. R. Hind, a British astronomer, once usedthese continuous data to calculate the orbit of Halley#39;s Comet, and discovered that the angle of the orbit showed a narrowing trend.In the Han Dynasty, it was 170 degrees, but it nar-rowed down t0 161 degrees in the mid-9th century.哈雷彗星大约每隔76年出现一次,从公元前240年到公元1910年的2149年期间,史书对哈雷彗星出现的记载多达29次,且记述详尽。英国天文学家J.R.海德曾经使用这些数据计算哈雷彗星的运行轨道,他发现,彗星运行轨道角度呈变小趋势:在汉代,角度为1700,到19世纪中叶,则减至1610。From 1600 to AD 1600, China recorded comets 581 times, leaving behind valuable materials. In 635 , Chinese astronomers pointed out that the comet al-ways traveled with its back to the sun. Without these repeated observations, the detailed descriptions of the comet tails could not have been made, nor could the relationship between the sun and comets have been correctly deduced.从公元前1600年到公元1600年,中国古代对彗星的记载多达581次,留下了极为珍贵的资料。公元前635年,中国古代天文学家指出,彗星总是背对太阳运行。没有上述有关彗星的反复观察,关于彗尾的描述则不可能详尽,也不可能对太阳和彗星之间的关系做出正确的分析。 /201511/409356

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