楼主:中医新闻 时间:2019年10月20日 18:05:40 点击:0 回复:0
Science and Technology Prevention of cancer Wonder drug科技 预防癌症 特效药Aspirin continues to amaze阿司匹林让人吃惊的另一面FOR thousands of years aspirin has been humanity#39;s wonder drug.几千年来,阿司匹林就一直是人类的特效药。Extracts from the willow tree have been used for pain relief in folk medicine since the time of the ancient Greeks.从古希腊开始,在民间医药中,人们就用柳树的萃取物缓解疼痛。By 1897 a synthetic derivative (acetyl salicylic acid) of the plant#39;s active ingredient (salicin) was created. This allowed aspirin to become the most widely used medicine in the world.1897年,这种植物中的有效成分的人工合成衍生物诞生了,于是阿司匹林变成了世界上应用最广泛的药品。In recent years its benefits as a blood-thinning drug have led to it being prescribed in low doses of around 50mg to reduce deaths from stroke and heart attack.最近几年,由于阿司匹林的防血凝功能,在用其治疗中风和心脏病的时候,剂量很小,维持在50mg的水平左右。There were also hints that aspirin may help prevent some cancers.也有迹象表明阿司匹林可以帮助预防一些癌症。But these were mostly based on observational studies, which can be misleading.不过这些结论大多都是在观察研究的基础上的,因而有可能产生误导。The gold standard of scientific evidence is the randomised controlled trial, preferably one with a lot of people and held over a long time.国际上科学据的标准是由随机对照实验得出的结果,尤其是那些有很多人参与又经过很长时间的实验。The results of just such a trial, published in the Lancet, suggest that aspirin is indeed an astonishing drug.而就是这样一份发表在《柳叶刀》上的论文表示阿司匹林的确是一种让人吃惊的药物。Peter Rothwell at the John Radcliffe Hospital in Oxford and his colleagues looked at deaths due to cancers during and after randomised trials of daily aspirin.来自牛津的约翰·拉德克里夫医院的彼得·罗思韦尔(Peter Rothwell)和他的同事们研究了在每日用阿司匹林的随机对照实验期间或者之后因癌症而死亡的病例。The trials had actually been started to look at how useful aspirin was for preventing heart attacks and strokes. Nevertheless, the data from the 25,570 patients enrolled in eight trials was also revealing about cancer.这一实验本是为了研究阿司匹林在防止心脏病和中风方面的疗效的,然而八项试验25570名患者的数据也揭示了阿司匹林对于癌症的疗效。In trials lasting between four and eight years, the patients who had been given aspirin were 21% less likely to die from cancer than those who had been given a placebo.在那些历时4到8年之间的实验中,用阿司匹林的患者因癌症而死亡的概率比那些用安慰剂的患者小了21%。These results were based on 674 cancer deaths, so are unlikely to represent the kind of statistical oddity that can beset studies on cancer risks that sometimes create headlines.这些结果是在674例癌症死亡病例的基础上得出的,所以不大可能是所谓的统计学上的例外。对癌症风险的研究会因这种例外而受挫,有时甚至会闹成大新闻。The benefits of aspirin were also apparent many years after the trials had ended.试验结束后的很多年后,阿司匹林的效果也仍旧明显。After five years, death rates for all cancers fell by 35% and for gastrointestinal cancers by 54%.五年后,所有癌症的死亡率下降了35%,而胃肠道癌症的死亡率则下降了54%。A long-term follow-up of patients showed that the 20-year risk of cancer death remained 20% lower in those who had taken aspirin.一项长期的病情跟踪报告显示,那些用阿司匹林的患者的20年内的癌症死亡风险比那些不用的低了20%。The study revealed that the effect takes time to accrue, so aspirin must be taken over a long period.这项研究揭示了阿司匹林的效果是随着时间而递增的,所以必须长期用才行。The latent period for improving oesophageal, pancreatic, brain and lung cancer was about five years of aspirin taking on a daily basis.For stomach and colorectal cancer the effects took ten years and for prostate cancer about 15 years.每日用阿司匹林对改善食管癌,胰腺癌,脑癌和肺癌的潜伏期为5年,对胃癌和结直肠癌则要花10年才能起作用,而前列腺癌则要15年。The means by which aspirin prevents cancer is not well understood.这意味着目前还不清楚阿司匹林到底是怎么预防癌症的。It is believed that it inhibits an enzyme that promotes cell proliferation in tumours.研究人员认为阿司匹林阻碍了一种在肿瘤内部促进细胞增殖的酶的活动。The researchers also found that small daily doses of aspirin were enough, and that taking more than 75mg conferred no additional benefits.研究者还发现,每天用小剂量的阿司匹林就已足够,剂量超过75mg后不会再增加效果。Those starting on aspirin in their late 40s or 50s benefit most.那些从四五十岁末就开始用阿司匹林的人得到的效果最好。Current guidelines on using aspirin for reducing the chances of a stroke or heart attack rightly warn of the small risk of ulcers and of dangerous bleeding in the stomach.目前在用阿司匹林治疗中风或者心脏病时,用药说明上会明确提醒有可能出现溃疡和危险性胃出血。These guidelines will probably have to be revised given the new findings.而鉴于这些新发现,这些说明很可能将要被修改了。However, it remains unlikely that popping aspirin will be recommended for everyone like a vitamin supplement.不过阿司匹林泡腾片不大可能像维生素补充剂一样被推广至每一个人。Aspirin is a highly cost-effective treatment: taking it for five to ten years easily beats initiatives to screen for breast and prostate cancers.用阿司匹林是一种非常划算的治疗:只要吃五到十年,就能打败那些让你做乳腺癌或者前列腺癌扫描的建议。To put it another way, ask yourself what a pharmaceuticals firm might charge for a drug that would reduce the chance of death by cancer by 20%—and then note that 100 days#39; supply of low-dose aspirin can cost less than a dollar.换种说法,问问你自己,什么样的医药公司在看到100天的小剂量阿司匹林供应量还值不到一美元时,会对这种能够减少20%癌症死亡几率的药品开价呢?By anyone#39;s measure, that is a bargain.不管按照哪一方的标准,这都是一笔非常划算的交易。 /201301/220729What do you think is the furthest distance in the world?你认为世界上最遥远的距离是什么?Tagore said that the furthest distance in the world is the love between the fish and the bird, because the former is swimming in the deep sea while the latter is flying in the sky. In her book titled The Single Bed in a Small Bag, Zhang Xiaoxian said that the furthest distance in the world is that when I stand in front of you, yet you don’t know that I love you.泰戈尔说世界上最远的距离是鱼与飞鸟的距离,一个在天,一个却深潜海底;张小娴在《荷包里的单人床》中说世界上最遥远的距离是我站在你面前,而你不知道我爱你。Maybe this distance exists currently. Maybe it’s not love, but kinship or friendship. Anyway, what do you think is the furthest distance in the world?也许这个距离就存在于现在,也许这个距离不是爱情而是亲情或者友情。那么,你认为世界上最遥远的距离是什么?In my mind that furthest distance in the world is from one heart to another heart, not only is a sign of love, but also include the friendship, family, and even affection in humankind. Once it disturbed our mind, there will be the furthest distance between the both. Think carefully, if there is no love between the both, any distance isn’t become the furthest. That is to say, as long as there is love in our mind, any distance is not problems. When we are fall in love with others, stature, age and even all of such as style differences are not problems. For instance, I am in the eastern China, think about is there distance between I and the far American? Of course no, just cost any thousand to buy a ticket, we can meet at once. But if you want to go to one’s heart, how far is it. You leave no stone unturned, you lay yourself out, and even you couldn’t catch the whither. Touch their hearts with love, and instruct them with reasons. It is teach us that we may move others’ love by love, and pave the way by love to span the furthest distance in the world. The poem said: The farthest distance in the World, is not the space between life and death, but that you don’t know I love you while I am standing in front of you. Perhaps both of Tagore and Zhang are inarticulate people. No matter which troubles happened in front of you, conquer it and brave express your feeling, you won’t be sorry.在我看来。世界上最遥远的距离是心到心的距离,不单单是说爱情,也包括友情,亲情甚至是普通人之间的情。任何事情,只要我们一旦动情,两者之间都会演变成世界上最遥远的距离。想想,如果两者之间没有情,任何距离都不足以说是最遥远的距离。也就是说,只要心中有爱,任何距离都不是问题。当我们同其它人恋爱时,身高年龄或者是类似的差别都不是问题。例如,我在东方的中国,想想,我离遥远的美国人之间有距离吗?没有,几千块钱的飞机票马上就到。可是你想要走进一个人的心里,那该是多么遥远的距离,你千方百计,你竭尽全力,你都有可能到达不了。晓之以情,动之以理。就是教育我们要以情去打动情,以爱铺路才能跨过人世间这最遥远的距离。诗里面说,世界上最遥远的距离不是生与死,而是我在你面前,你却不知道我爱你。也许张小娴和泰戈尔都是不善于表达的人。无论前面有什么困难,你克一切勇敢去表达了,你就不会有这种遗憾了。When we are hard to communicate with friends, we think we are so lonely.当我们和朋友没办法沟通时,我们觉的孤单。When we are hard to communicate with parents, we think we are so sad.当我们和教师没办法沟通时,我们觉的失望。When we are hard to communicate with lover, we think we are so despairing.当我们和父母没办法沟通时,我们觉的悲伤。When we are hard to communicate with teachers, we think we are so hopeless.当我们和爱人没办法沟通时,我们觉的绝望。Maybe, we have to change ourselves. Let us span the furthest distance over the world together.或许,我们应该改变自己。让我们一起跨越这世界上最遥远的距离吧~ /201211/209428

They are notoriously shy around humans, beating their tails and chattering their teeth to try to warn us off before emitting loud whistles to tell other members of their colony to flee.众所周知,土拨鼠在人类面前很胆小。它们会敲打着尾巴,吱吱地磨着牙,以警告人类不要靠近。它们还会发出响亮的口哨以通知领域内的同胞逃离此处。But when these alpine marmots see Matteo Walch, they scuttle to his side and show him nothing but affection.但当这些高山土拨鼠遇见Matteo Walch时,它们涌到他的身边,流露出的满满全是喜爱之情。The eight-year-old built up a remarkable relationship with the creatures since first being taken to see them by his nature-loving family four years ago.自从四年前被热爱动物的家人带着见到这群土拨鼠后,这个8岁的小男孩儿便与它们建立了深厚的感情。The family return to visit the colony in Groslocker in the Austrian Alps for two weeks every year.这家人每年都会来到位于奥地利阿尔卑斯山下的格罗斯洛克住两周,探访Matteo的动物朋友们。Matteo’s father Michaela, said: #39;Their friendship has lasted for more than four years now.Matteo的爸爸Michaela说道:“他们之间的友谊已经持续四年多了。”#39;He loves those animals and they are not at all afraid of Matteo because he has a feeling towards them and they understand that.“他爱这些小动物们,而它们也完全不害怕他的存在,因为他对它们有一种感情,而它们也完全能领会。”We go there every year now for two weeks - it’s amazing to watch the connection between a boy and his animal friends.’“我们每年都去那里呆两周——看到一个小男孩儿和动物朋友之间的情感联系,这样的感觉很美妙。”Marmots stand at around 18cm tall and reach up to 50cm in length. Bizarrely, the animals are heavier in the autumn, when they can weigh up to 8kg, in comparison to 3kg in the spring months.土拨鼠直立高度差不多有18cm,身长约50cm。奇怪的是,这种动物到了秋天便会增肥,能长到约8kg重,而春天仅3kg。Michaela, a schoolteacher from Innsbruck, Austria, has uniquely captured the unique bond between Matteo and his marmot friends throughout the past four years.Michaela是奥地利因斯布鲁克的一位教师,他在过去的四年内拍了许多Matteo和土拨鼠朋友的照片。He said: #39;I could spend hours watching animals - it gives me a connection with nature and its life forms.他说:“我能一连几小时注视着动物们——它能让我与自然和动物的生活方式产生联系。”#39;It’s great that I have been able to document the marmot’s natural behaviour around Matteo without making them afraid of me and my equipment.“当我在拍摄Matteo和土拨鼠之间的自然行为时,它们一点儿也不怕我和我的器材。这真是太棒了。”#39;I wanted to capture the animals exactly the way I see them - the way they behave among each other, in harmony with their surroundings.#39;“我想把我所见到的动物最真实的样子拍下来——我想拍出那种它们自然互动、和周围一切和谐相融的感觉。”It is clear from the pictures that Matteo and the marmots are totally comfortable in each other’s company.从照片中可以看出,Matteo和他的土拨鼠朋友们相处得非常自然。Michaela, 46, said: #39;The picture of a curious animal approaching me is a thousand times more beautiful than the picture of any animal looking at me in fear before it takes flight.46岁的Michaela说道:“一张小动物好奇接近我的照片,要比那些紧张地注视着我镜头、准备立刻逃跑的动物照片美丽一千倍。”#39;This is how I try to picture the proudest, more beautiful and also the funniest moments, giving others the opportunity to enjoy the miraculous world of animals.’“我便是这样拍出那些最令人自豪、最美丽、同时也是最有趣的瞬间的。这样,别人也能有机会去享受这不可思议的动物世界。” /201208/197258

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